Protection of cultural heritage during wartime in Ukraine:
legislation and practical aspects of implementation
Keywords:cultural heritage, protection of cultural heritage, an object of cultural heritage, monuments, immovable monuments.
The article discusses the legal basis in the field of cultural heritage protection in Ukraine, the powers of cultural heritage protection bodies and the central executive body - the Ministry of Culture and Information Policy of Ukraine on cultural heritage protection, general issues regarding the evacuation of cultural values. The author analyses the international legislation in the field of cultural heritage protection and international aid and support to Ukraine in wartime, including the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The article determines the efforts of state authorities, entrepreneurs, the public, and activists to preserve cultural heritage, in particular regarding the protection of immovable monuments and monuments in the largest Ukrainian cities (Kyiv, Lviv, Odesa). The author characterises the destruction of objects of cultural heritage and the documentation of war crimes against humanity and objects of cultural heritage committed by the Russian occupying forces on the territory of Ukraine. Brief statistics of episodes of Russian war crimes against Ukrainian cultural heritage (by regions, types of cultural heritage objects, etc.) are provided. It discloses the aspects of de-Russification, decommunization in the field of cultural heritage protection in Ukraine since the beginning of the war and the powers of state authorities regarding the dismantling of monuments that do not have the status of objects of cultural heritage or are not registered, removal, de-registration and relocation of objects of cultural heritage. The author raises the need of updating the information on the library collections in connection with the armed aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine. It indicates the peculiarities of the protection of intangible cultural heritage in Ukraine and its role during armed conflicts and emergency situations. The author also shows the further measures for the reconstruction of Ukraine and the preparation of a plan for the restoration of Ukraine.
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